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  • Writer's pictureDeLone Dawisha



In the world of Michigan real estate transactions, few documents are as critical as the purchase agreement. This legally binding contract is the heart of every property sale, outlining the terms and conditions that dictate the transfer of property ownership. However, with its complex legal jargon and numerous clauses, the purchase agreement can be a minefield for the uninitiated. It's not uncommon for buyers or sellers to skim through the dense legal text and miss crucial details, misinterpret conditions, or misunderstand their obligations under the agreement. This can lead to costly mistakes, potential legal disputes, and even the collapse of the transaction.

This comprehensive guide aims to demystify the intricacies of purchase agreements and emphasize the invaluable role of a real estate attorney in protecting your interests in Michigan real estate transactions. We'll delve into the common elements found in purchase agreements, explain what they mean, and highlight why they matter. We will also discuss potential pitfalls and practical considerations in purchase agreements.

Whether you're a first-time homebuyer or a seasoned real estate investor, understanding the purchase agreement is crucial to a successful transaction. And with the support of an experienced real estate attorney, you can navigate the complexities of the purchase agreement with confidence, ensuring a smooth and secure path towards property ownership in Michigan.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this blog post is intended for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. Please seek the advice of an attorney in your respective jurisdiction before making any decisions based on this information.


1.) What is a Purchase Agreement?

A purchase agreement, alternatively known as a real estate contract or sale agreement, is a binding legal document outlining the terms and conditions under which a property is sold. It represents a formal agreement between the buyer and seller, essentially serving as the roadmap for a real estate transaction.

This vital document covers a broad array of critical details that collectively define the parameters of the property sale. It specifies the agreed-upon sale price, the expected closing date, and the precise identification of the property in question, including its physical address and legal description.

Furthermore, the purchase agreement outlines various contingencies—conditions that must be met for the transaction to proceed. These can range from successful property inspections and the buyer's ability to secure financing, to the seller's ability to deliver a clear title at closing. Each contingency essentially provides a legally permissible way for the involved parties to back out of the transaction if the condition is not met, without facing penalties.

In addition, the purchase agreement stipulates the rights and obligations of both the buyer and seller, detailing what each party is responsible for during the transaction. It may cover aspects such as who is responsible for paying certain fees, what happens if either party fails to fulfill their obligations, and how disputes will be resolved should they arise.

Given the breadth of details covered and the legal complexities involved, a purchase agreement is often a dense document filled with legal jargon. Understanding the terms, conditions, and clauses in a purchase agreement is no small task, but it is crucial for any potential buyer. Every clause in this contract has the potential to impact your rights, your finances, and ultimately, your satisfaction with the property purchase.

Without a thorough understanding of the purchase agreement, you could find yourself locked into a contract that doesn't protect your interests or align with your expectations. That's why it's essential to not only familiarize yourself with the basics of purchase agreements but also to enlist the help of a real estate professional—like an experienced real estate attorney—who can guide you through the complexities, ensure your interests are protected, and help you navigate the path to a successful transaction.

2.) Key Components of a Purchase Agreement

A standard purchase agreement, while varying to some degree based on local regulations and customs, typically includes the following key components:

a.) Property Description: This section contains a comprehensive description of the property on sale. It includes the property's street address, along with a legal description, which usually refers to the property's exact boundaries as per official county records. It may also include a description of any included fixtures or personal property such as appliances, furniture, or outdoor features.

b.) Purchase Price: This is the agreed-upon amount that the buyer will pay to purchase the property. The purchase price is a crucial element of the contract, and it often reflects negotiations between the buyer and seller based on the property's listing price, the current real estate market, and the property's appraised value.

c.) Earnest Money Deposit: The earnest money deposit is a sum of money that the buyer deposits as a show of good faith after the purchase agreement is signed. This deposit, which is typically held in an escrow account, shows the seller that the buyer is serious about purchasing the property. The earnest money deposit is usually applied towards the purchase price at closing, but the purchase agreement should specify what happens to the deposit if the sale does not go through.

d.) Contingencies: Contingencies are specific conditions that must be met for the sale to proceed. Common contingencies include financing (the buyer securing a mortgage), inspection (the property passing a professional inspection), and appraisal (the property being appraised at a value at or above the purchase price). If these conditions are not met, the buyer or seller may have the right to withdraw from the contract without penalty.

e.) Closing Date: This is the date when the sale of the property will be finalized, and the ownership of the property will be transferred from the seller to the buyer. The purchase agreement will specify this date, and both parties are expected to adhere to it. Delays can occur, but the agreement will typically include provisions for what happens in such cases.

f.) Representations and Warranties: Both the buyer and the seller typically make certain representations and warranties in a purchase agreement. These are statements of fact about the property and the transaction, such as the seller's ownership of the property, the condition of the property, and the ability of the parties to enter into the agreement. Any breach of these representations and warranties could lead to legal action after the closing.

Common representations and warranties made by the seller might include:

i. Ownership: The seller often represents and warrants that they are the legal owner of the property and have the full right and authority to sell it. This also includes the assertion that the property is free from any liens or encumbrances, except as disclosed in the agreement.

ii. Compliance with Laws: Sellers often warrant that the property complies with all applicable laws and regulations, including zoning laws, building codes, and environmental regulations.

iii. Condition of Property: While most residential real estate sales are made on an "as is" basis, in some cases, the seller may warrant certain aspects of the property's condition. This could cover structural soundness, the condition of major systems (like the HVAC or electrical system), and the absence of hazardous substances.

iv. No Pending Legal Action: The seller often represents that there are no ongoing or threatened lawsuits, disputes, or claims related to the property.

Meanwhile, common representations and warranties made by the buyer might include:

v. Financial Capability: The buyer typically represents that they have sufficient funds or have secured necessary financing to complete the purchase.

vi. Legal Capacity: The buyer often warrants that they have the legal capacity to enter into and perform their obligations under the agreement.

vii. Intent to Purchase: The buyer usually represents their intent to purchase the property according to the terms outlined in the agreement.

viii. Acknowledgment of Due Diligence: In some cases, the buyer might represent that they have had sufficient opportunity to inspect the property and conduct due diligence.

Remember, misrepresentation or breach of these warranties could lead to legal action after the closing. Therefore, having a real estate attorney by your side can be invaluable in understanding these obligations and mitigating potential risks.

ix. Environmental Issues: The seller often represents and warrants that to the best of their knowledge, the property is free from hazardous substances, is not in violation of any environmental laws, and has not been used for the storage or disposal of hazardous waste. This is particularly crucial for commercial properties where the risk of environmental contamination is higher.

x. Operational and Financial Information: In commercial transactions, the seller may provide representations and warranties about the operational and financial status of the property, such as current leases, income, and expenses.

xi. Tax Matters: The seller often represents that all property taxes have been paid and there are no outstanding tax liens on the property.

xii. No Material Changes: If there's a gap between the signing and closing of the agreement, the seller may warrant that there will be no material adverse changes to the property during this period.

xiii. Compliance with Lease Obligations: In case of an income-producing property, the seller may warrant that they have complied with all obligations under current leases, and there are no ongoing disputes with tenants.

xiv. Absence of Condemnation Proceedings: The seller usually represents that there are no pending or threatened condemnation proceedings related to the property.

xv. Compliance with HOA/Condominium Rules: If the property is part of a homeowner's association (HOA) or a condominium, the seller may warrant compliance with all relevant rules and regulations, and that all fees and assessments are up-to-date.

xvi. Existence and Authority of Parties: Both the buyer and seller usually provide representations about their legal existence, their authority to enter into the purchase agreement, and the validity and enforceability of the agreement against them. This might include confirmations that all necessary board or committee approvals have been obtained. For the buyer, this could also include a representation about their financial capacity to fulfill their obligations under the agreement.

xvii. Absence of Litigation or Defaults: The seller often represents that there is no ongoing litigation or default involving the property. This would also include no notices of violations regarding environmental or regulatory compliance issues that could affect the property's value or use.

xviii. Accuracy of Provided Information: The seller typically represents that all information provided to the buyer - including data on leases, service agreements, and property lists - is accurate and complete to the best of their knowledge.

xix. Freedom from Condemnation or Third-Party Purchase Rights: The seller often warrants that there are no condemnation proceedings involving the property and no third parties have the right to purchase it.

xx. Maintenance of Property Condition and Operations: The seller may covenant to maintain the property and its operations in the same condition until closing, including keeping up with tax payments and maintaining appropriate insurance coverage.

xxi. Restrictions on Lease Modifications: The seller might covenant that no new leases will be entered into and existing leases will not be terminated or materially modified prior to closing without the buyer's consent.

xxii. Other Transaction-Specific Representations: Depending on the nature of the property and the transaction, the buyer and seller may make additional representations, warranties, or covenants. These could pertain to factors such as the property's zoning status, its compatibility with the buyer's intended use, the transferability of necessary permits and licenses, and more.

The breadth and depth of these representations and warranties underscore the complexity of real estate transactions and the importance of having a knowledgeable real estate attorney review your purchase agreement. An experienced attorney can help you understand these provisions, verify their accuracy, and protect your interests.

g.) Indemnification: Indemnification clauses are included to protect either party from financial loss due to lawsuits or claims related to the transaction. Essentially, an indemnification clause can require one party to compensate the other for any harm, liability, or loss arising out of the transaction.

h.) Closing Conditions: These are specific requirements that must be fulfilled before or at the closing. These can include the buyer securing financing, the seller completing agreed-upon repairs, or the property being in the same condition at closing as when the agreement was signed.

i.) Default and Remedies: This section outlines what will happen if either party fails to fulfill their obligations under the agreement (defaults). The remedies for a default can vary, but they often include the ability for the non-defaulting party to terminate the agreement and potentially receive damages.

j.) Amendment and Waiver: This section dictates how the agreement can be changed after it's been signed. Typically, any amendments need to be in writing and agreed to by both parties. It may also provide for circumstances under which a party can waive a condition in the agreement.

k.) Confidentiality: In some transactions, particularly commercial ones, there might be a confidentiality clause that restricts parties from disclosing sensitive or proprietary information about the property or the transaction itself.

l.) Governing Law: The purchase agreement usually specifies which state's laws will govern the interpretation and enforcement of the agreement. This is particularly important for properties near state lines or for parties located in different states.

m.) Survival: Some of the provisions of the purchase agreement may need to "survive" the closing, meaning they continue to have effect even after the property has changed hands. Examples of such provisions might include indemnification clauses or the obligations to pay any unpaid taxes or charges.

n.) Signatures: For a purchase agreement to be legally binding, it must be signed by both the buyer and the seller. In most cases, the real estate agents involved will also sign the agreement. The signing usually occurs after all negotiations are complete, and both parties are satisfied with the terms of the sale.

Each of these components plays a crucial role in the transaction and should be carefully reviewed and understood by both parties. Given the legal weight and financial implications of the purchase agreement, it's wise to have an experienced real estate attorney review the document before signing. Their expertise can help ensure that your interests are fully protected and that you're entering into an agreement fully aware of all its terms and conditions.

3.) Commonly Misunderstood Clauses in Purchase Agreements

While every purchase agreement is unique, there are some clauses that often cause confusion. Having a clear understanding of these could be the difference between a smooth transaction and a real estate nightmare. Here are a few that deserve extra attention:

a.) Financing Contingency: This clause stipulates that the agreement is contingent upon the buyer securing appropriate financing. Essentially, if the buyer can't get a loan for the property, they can back out of the deal without losing their earnest money deposit. Misunderstanding the terms and conditions of this clause can lead to unexpected complications if the financing falls through. For instance, if the clause specifies a particular type of loan (like a conventional loan) and the buyer is only approved for another type (like an FHA loan), the buyer might not be able to fulfill this contingency.

b.) Inspection Contingency: This clause allows the buyer a specific time period to conduct a professional inspection of the property and potentially renegotiate the price or ask for repairs based on the results. If the seller refuses to negotiate or the inspection uncovers serious issues, the buyer can withdraw from the agreement without losing their earnest money deposit. However, failing to fully comprehend this clause can result in missed opportunities to address potential issues with the property. For example, some buyers might not realize that they may need to pay for additional inspections for issues like pests, mold, or radon.

c.) Title Contingency: This clause stipulates that the buyer has the right to review the title and potentially withdraw from the agreement if significant issues are discovered. The title review is meant to ensure that the seller truly owns the property and there are no liens, easements, or other issues that could affect the transfer of ownership. Overlooking this clause can lead to unexpected legal complications after the sale. For example, if a previous owner didn't pay their contractor who then put a lien on the property, as the new owner, you could be responsible for that debt.

d.) Appraisal Contingency: An often misunderstood clause, the appraisal contingency protects the buyer in case the property's appraised value is less than the purchase price. If the property doesn't appraise for the agreed-upon price, the buyer has the right to renegotiate the price or cancel the contract. Misinterpretation of this clause could lead to the buyer being stuck with a property that's worth less than what they agreed to pay.

Each of these clauses serves to protect the buyer during the real estate transaction, but they can also add layers of complexity to the purchase agreement. Misunderstanding or misinterpreting these clauses could potentially cost buyers time, money, and even the property itself. That's why it's so crucial to work with a knowledgeable real estate attorney who can help you navigate the complexities of the purchase agreement and ensure your interests are protected throughout the transaction.

4.) How a Real Estate Attorney Can Protect Your Interests

Navigating a real estate transaction can be a complex process, especially when it comes to understanding and negotiating the terms of the purchase agreement. This is where the role of a real estate attorney becomes invaluable. Here's how they can protect your interests:

a.) Contract Review: Real estate attorneys are skilled at dissecting complex legal documents like purchase agreements. They can meticulously review the agreement on your behalf, interpreting the legalese, and ensuring that the terms and conditions are favorable to you. A thorough review can help you avoid pitfalls and understand your rights and obligations under the contract.

b.) Negotiation: A real estate attorney can also serve as your advocate in negotiations. If there are terms in the purchase agreement that are unfavorable or unclear, your attorney can negotiate modifications to the agreement on your behalf. Their goal is to ensure that the final contract reflects your best interests.

c.) Due Diligence: During the due diligence period, a real estate attorney can help review inspection reports, title searches, and other important documents. They can help you understand any potential issues and advise on the best course of action. For instance, if the title search reveals an old lien on the property, your attorney can guide you on how to resolve this issue.

d.) Issue Resolution: Real estate transactions often encounter unexpected issues, from undisclosed property defects to financing snags. An experienced real estate attorney can provide advice on how to handle these potential problems, whether it involves renegotiating certain terms, seeking specific remedies, or even walking away from the deal.

e.) Closing Support: When it's time to close the deal, your attorney can help ensure that all necessary paperwork is completed correctly and that all funds are transferred properly. They can also explain each document that you're signing, so you fully understand the implications of the transfer of ownership.

By engaging a real estate attorney during your real estate transaction, you can help ensure that your interests are protected from the beginning to the end. Their expertise can be the key to unlocking a smooth and successful property purchase.

5.) Hypothetical Scenarios

a.) Scenario 1: A first-time homebuyer in Ann Arbor, Michigan, enters into a purchase agreement without fully understanding the inspection contingency clause. After the home inspection reveals significant structural issues, the buyer is unsure of their options and ends up proceeding with the purchase, leading to costly repairs down the line. Had they sought the guidance of a real estate attorney, they could have renegotiated the terms of the agreement or potentially withdrawn from the sale.

b.) Scenario 2: A commercial real estate investor in Detroit is purchasing a multi-tenant building. The seller represents and warrants that all leases are in good standing. However, after closing, the buyer discovers that a major tenant is behind on rent and planning to vacate the property, significantly impacting the property's income potential. If the buyer had engaged a real estate attorney, they could have insisted on a more thorough review of the leases during due diligence or sought specific warranties about the status of the leases.

c.) Scenario 3: A couple in Grand Rapids is purchasing a home located within a homeowner's association (HOA). The purchase agreement includes a title contingency, but the couple overlooks this clause. After closing, they discover that the property has significant unpaid HOA assessments that they are now responsible for. A real estate attorney could have helped them understand the importance of a title review and potentially negotiate for the assessments to be paid before closing.

d.) Scenario 4: A seller in Traverse City represents that there are no environmental issues with their commercial property. After the purchase, the buyer discovers that the property was used for the disposal of hazardous waste and now faces costly clean-up and potential regulatory fines. If a real estate attorney had been involved, they might have advised the buyer to conduct an environmental assessment before closing or seek stronger environmental representations and warranties from the seller.

These scenarios illustrate how the complexities of purchase agreements can lead to unexpected complications. It's crucial to have an experienced real estate attorney who can navigate these complexities and protect your interests throughout the transaction.

6.) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):

a.) What are the implications of a breached purchase agreement?

When a party fails to fulfill its obligations under a purchase agreement, it's considered a breach of contract. This can lead to significant legal repercussions. Typically, the party that has been aggrieved by the breach may sue for damages, attempting to recover any financial losses incurred due to the breach. Alternatively, in certain situations, they may seek a court order for specific performance, compelling the breaching party to carry out their commitments under the agreement. The specifics of each case can vary greatly, so it's crucial to consult a knowledgeable real estate attorney to understand your options and potential remedies in such situations.

b.) What should I know about 'As-Is' clauses in purchase agreements?

An 'As-Is' clause in a purchase agreement signifies that the buyer agrees to purchase the property in its existing state at the time of the sale, including all its faults and defects. This clause is significant as it generally absolves the seller from any responsibility for issues that might surface post-sale, even if they were unknown to both the buyer and seller at the time of the transaction. This is why a buyer should consider a thorough home inspection before agreeing to an 'As-Is' sale and why an attorney's counsel can be invaluable in understanding the potential risks and liabilities.

c.) What does it mean when 'time is of the essence' in a purchase agreement?

In the realm of contract law, the phrase 'time is of the essence' underscores the critical importance of meeting the deadlines set within the agreement. When this clause is included in a purchase agreement, it means that every timeline and deadline in the contract must be strictly adhered to. Failure to meet these deadlines, even by a slight margin, could be considered a breach of contract, potentially leading to serious legal consequences.

d.) How does an attorney review differ from a home inspection in a real estate transaction?

An attorney review and a home inspection serve two distinctly different but equally important functions in a real estate transaction. An attorney review focuses on analyzing the legal aspects of the purchase agreement. This process ensures the terms and conditions of the agreement serve the buyer's best interests, protect their rights, and do not expose them to undue risk or liability. On the other hand, a home inspection is a physical examination of the property. It aims to identify potential issues, such as structural defects, problems with systems like HVAC or plumbing, or other property concerns. Both processes are vital for a buyer to make an informed decision about the purchase.

e.) Can a real estate attorney assist with for sale by owner (FSBO) transactions?

Absolutely! Regardless of whether a real estate agent is part of the transaction, a real estate attorney's expertise can be invaluable. In a for sale by owner (FSBO) transaction, where professional guidance may be limited, an attorney can assist with vital tasks such as preparing or reviewing the purchase agreement, addressing potential legal issues, and ensuring a smooth closing process. Their involvement can be instrumental in protecting your interests and making sure that all legal requirements are met.

Remember, purchasing property is a significant investment, and the complexity of purchase agreements can pose potential legal challenges. As an experienced Michigan real estate attorney, I can provide the specialized guidance you need to navigate these complexities. Contact me today for a free initial consultation. Let's collaborate to ensure your real estate journey is secure, successful, and free of unnecessary legal hurdles.


Understanding the intricacies of purchase agreements is crucial in any real estate transaction. These complex documents dictate the terms of your property purchase, and misunderstanding a single clause can lead to costly mistakes. As demonstrated in our hypothetical scenarios, potential complications can range from unexpected repairs and financial shortfalls to legal disputes and regulatory issues.

The importance of having an expert guide through this process cannot be overstated. A real estate attorney provides invaluable assistance in this regard. They can review and interpret the purchase agreement on your behalf, help you understand the obligations and implications of each clause, and negotiate modifications to protect your interests.

Moreover, their role extends beyond just the purchase agreement. They can also handle title reviews, coordinate with your lender, liaise with the other party's attorney, and address any unexpected issues that arise during the transaction process. Their expertise can help ensure that your real estate purchase proceeds as smoothly as possible, minimizing surprises and maximizing your peace of mind.

If you are involved in a real estate transaction in Michigan, don't navigate the complexities of the purchase agreement alone. Reach out to a seasoned Michigan real estate attorney who can provide the expert guidance and support you need. Remember, the success of your real estate transaction largely depends on understanding the fine print and making informed decisions - and that's where the right legal partner can make all the difference.

Contact us today for a free initial consultation, and let's work towards making your real estate journey secure and successful.

DeLone Dawisha

Principal and Founder

Dawisha Law, PLLC



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